Research into nanoparticles in the field of nano-medicine can allow the transportation of various drugs or proteins to treat diseases or disorders. In humans and many other mammals such as cows this process of producing gametes is called meiosis. 1 marks = A factor that distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction (genetic variation, number of parents, mitosis vs meiosis, performed using germ cell verses somatic cell, etc). Biology. Note that most pollen grains contain two male gametes. Recombinant DNA technology is one technology widely used across the biotechnology industry which can be used to create transgenic species. 1 mark = Provide an example of sexual and asexual reproduction. However, Dolly the Sheep died earlier than scientists’ expectation. As from Year 8 Geography, the tree roots stabilise the soil so removing trees would destabilise the soil and result in soil erosion. There are 57 lessons in the HSC Study Lab Year 12 Biology course, which corresponds to the 120 indicative hours of study required by the syllabus. As the world population grows with increasing demand to increase crop production and yield, the need to clear land and forests to grow crops is necessary. But, the loose soil can be carried away by rain which end up in local waterways which increases the water turbidity. 2. <3. The gametes must be from the same species in other for successful fertilisation. Artificial insemination is primarily used to produce offsprings with favourable characteristics, mix of both male and female parents. This is useful as it be assist in the prevention, control and cure of diseases which we will also explore in Module 7 and 8! The levels of endorphin peaks as the strength and frequency of cervix dilations and contractions increase to combat pain. The fusion of the sperm and egg cell results in fertilisation of the egg cell, producing of zygote. Under favourable conditions, these spores will germinate and a genetically different fungus to its parents will be formed. Maharashtra Board 10th Science Paper 2 2018 Question Paper: Find here the links to download Class 10 MSBSHSE 2018 Question Paper for Science Part II with Solutions. The fertilisation process and fusion of gametes occurs in the fallopian tube of female’s body. genetic variation is the same for both external and internal fertilisation). Retailer of quality educational toys, childrens books and textbooks for over 40 years. These crops are able to survive and grow in cold locations around the world that otherwise would not be possible which increases the food availability for the growing world population. • Internal fertilisation occurs inside the female’s body which means that the zygote is protected from the external environment of the parent. Comparatively, asexual reproduction, such as mitosis, is the process of producing an offspring from just one parent through cell division or mitosis. cold strawberries, cold tomatoes, faster growing salmons examples mentioned earlier). The list are some areas which we have already talked about that can yield benefits for society upon future research. The hormone testosterone is produced in cells’ in the testes organ of male as part of spermatogenesis as it plays a role in producing sperm cells. All notes are fully updated and written to the current syllabus by high-achieving HSC student graduates.
This series provides a unique pe ATAR Notes: Year 12 Biology Complete Course Notes (2019-2020) - Madeleine Wainwright - 9781925534726 - Five Senses Education Investigate the use of data analysis from a large-scale collaborative project to identify trends, patterns and relationships, for example: (ACSBL064, ACSBL073) Artificial insemination involves the fertilisation of an egg with a sperm cell. On top of being responsible in increasing the supply of food to the growing world population (more pathogen-resistant crops increases crop yield), agricultural biotechnology also supports in enhancing the nutritional value of food to improve health by preventing nutritional deficiencies. The cutting is then planted in the same environment as the mother plant to allow the cutting to develop the same characteristics as the mother plant, producing the same yield with the same harvest time. HSC biology. EasyHSC is a free online resource for students studying the NSW HSC. The zygote will develop into a living organism that has mixed genetic information from the parents. A population of species with more unique adaptations would mean greater chance of a characteristics that would be favourable in tolerating changes in environmental conditions. About 100 years later, in 1859, Charles Darwin published the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. This means that cross pollination involves two plants. See the exam paper, plus marking guidelines and feedback from markers, for the 2017 NSW Biology Higher School Certificate (HSC) exam. Other roles of progesterone during pregnancy. Interested in our year 11 biology tutoring classes? NOTE: Binary fission in protist vs bacteria and budding in protist vs fungi are similar. Our extensive library of handy and helpful HSC Biology resources including past papers with worked solutions, study guides, study notes, essays written by students, assignments and many more, to help you prepare for the HSC Spores different to gametes as they do NOT need to combine or be fertilised by another spore to form an offspring. HSC biology. However, they are uncommon. These egg cells can undergo parthenogenesis to produce haploid drone (male) bees. It is based on concepts of dominant and recessive genes. So, we wonât go into detail. That being said, there are arguments in favour of applying gene therapy to germ-line cells to remove health disparities between people of different ethnicities. Note that chromosomes in the homologous sets are not necessarily identical copies as the chromosomes may contain different alleles for the same gene. Advancements in nanoparticles are able to accelerate the capabilities of delivering various enzymes through the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspace short palindromic repeats) technique to edit genes to cure diseases and disorders. Pollination is referred to the process where the pollen is successfully transfered to the stigma of another plant. Biotechnology refers to activities involving living cells particularly involving the use of organisms or their materials as tools or for commercial use. During reproduction, the parents’ genetic materials, coding for adaptations, are passed onto the offspring. Explain how Darwin/Wallace’s theory of evolution by natural … <3 In reality, manufacturers make GM food and transgenic food synonymous despite them being different! Also, should we clone humans? We find two types of life in nature. 1 mark = Relating how the passion on of genetic material from parents to offspring permits the change in a population’s adaptations outlook over time. These include food (beef, lettuce, fish meats, etc), medicine (e.g. Help develop and maintain the lining of the placenta. The gametes fuse with one purpose – to form a zygote, single cell with 46 chromosomes. Thus, ensuring the continuity of the species. the jellyfish case, gene to treat osteoporosis disease). The zygote therefore has a lower chance of survival via external fertilisation. [7 marks], Week 7 Curveball Question #3: Explain the importance of research in biotechnology and its implications on society with examples. This will be the only section focusing on past biotechnology techniques and all other sections in this weekâs notes will be referring to modern biotechnology unless otherwise specified. The result is yeast that is genetically identical to parent. NOTE: It is important to note that asexual reproduction does not introduce genetic variation in offspring while sexual reproduction does. It is important to note that most plants have its own stigma and stamen. Book a FREE TRIAL lesson today! This results in less oil being absorbed by the potato strips upon frying when making french fries. In this reproductive pathway, the fungi produces genetically different fungi cells called hyphas which fuse together to give rise to sexual spores. These asexual spores are usually produced when ambient environment conditions are favourable via mitosis. It should also mentioned that tourists travel around the world each year to explore natural landscapes such as rainforests which are a large source of revenue for many countries. Asexual reproduction: Asexual reproduction is the process of forming an offspring (usually a cell) from just ONE parent through cell division. There are two reproductive pathways: sexual and asexual. The mature egg will migrate to the ovary’s surface and eventually into the fallopian tube where it will be moved by cilia along the tube and into the uterus. Parthenogenesis is the process whereby an unfertilised egg develops into an functional offspring. Of course, there is a limit. External fertilisation is restricted to aquatic environments. These characteristics may be physical (Structural), physiological or behavioural. By week 3’s notes, you will see the importance of creating variation in offspring’s genetic information (new allele combinations, increasing variation in the alleles which gametes can inherit as well as variation in the gametes that are fertilised during fertilisation). Here’s a breakdown of what you need to know. This type of reproductive technology was used by the well-known scientist and monk, Gregor Mendel in his pea plants experiments – which helped create modern laws of genetic inheritance. As follicles mature, they secrete oestrogen into the blood stream which releases in a spike in LH level. Favourable in hot environments or during the middle of the day. The zygospore is diploid as each of the hypha are haploid. They MAY or MAY NOT be clones of the parent. Over time, this daughter nucleus undergoes further cell division via mitosis to grow and mature, resulting in a protists that is genetically ideal to parent. How does vegetative propagation fit in all of this? This spike in LH level will result in ovulation where the matured egg is released from the developed follicle. Overview of Week 7’s Inquiry Question – How do genetic techniques affect Earth’s biodiversity? On average our students achieve a 92 in Biology. The continuity of a species refer to how a species can reproduce offsprings that are favourable to the ambient environment and avoid extinction in general. His experimental results led to his proposal of the three major laws of inheritance being â dominance, independent assortment and random segregation, officially marking the birth of genetics studies. At the end of the day, as outlined by the Australasian Association of Bioethics and Health Law (AABHL), it is important to encourage a wide range of stakeholders to participate in the discussion and formation of ethical policies that balances interests of all parties whilst still allowing innovation in the biotech field. This can be explained by how the processes of crossing over, random segregation, independent assortment increases the genetic variation of offsprings in a population whenever meiosis occurs. Other benefits of artificial insemination involves minimising the costs of transporting animals from one country to another in order to be crossed over. The offspring will now have the same favourable characteristics as parent due to inheriting identical genetic information and thus have the same survival rate of parent if they are exposed to same environment with the same resources. We will be focusing on medical, agricultural and marine biotechnology for HSC Biology. Each hypha have ends of that are capable of producing spores called sporangia (plural for sporangium). For example, rainforests are critical in not only providing oxygen for terrestrial and aquatic organisms to perform cellular respiration but also in maintaining the CO2 level in the atmosphere. the change in genetic information, for example, how a rainbow unicorn population can slowly turn into a pack of green unicorns, over time? Protists are mostly unicellular whereas fungi are mostly multicellular. Over time, the genetic variation in the species’s population will decrease as most of the species have the same adaptations. • Internal fertilisation has higher fertilisation success rate on a per gamete basis compared to external fertilisation. Those organisms with favourable characteristics will reproduce more successfully and pass on their favourable genetic information to their offspring. Dolly the Sheep (cute sheep clone example). An asexual offspring is a clone of its parent. This is because the sperm does not need to travel by chance to fertilise an egg. The zygote is diploid, i.e. The extraction of insect-resistant Bt gene from the bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis, allows biotechnologists to insert the gene into crops such as corn and cotton to resist crops being invaded by insects and pathogens (e.g. In some fungus, the mycelium contains hyphae of two genders (male and female). Due to the limited defence capabilities of the zygote (e.g. We will talk more about Gregor Mendel in later weeks. Successfully implantation means pregnancy. At certain points along the runners, nodes can develop which extends to the soil, resulting in the formation of new plant roots at another area of the soil whereby a new strawberry plant can grow. Bulbs are bud cells that are found underground. Self-pollination is similar to cross pollination. Also capitalise on the holidays break now. Investigate the uses and applications of biotechnology (past, present and future), including: This fertilised ovule is called a seed which contains the zygote and will develop into an embryo. Hence, only the parents’ genetic material in non-somatic cells’ (or sex cells’) genetic material is passed onto the offspring. The majority of the population’s would be genetically identical – having same mixed genes of the selected male and female parent. Genetic variation is created in sexual reproduction and NOT in asexual reproduction. Mushroom is a type of fungi where the mushroom cap is above the hyphae spread along the stem and to the mushroom cap. Usually, both the male and female parents have favourable characteristics that an offspring would combine. Reproduction processes such as meiosis can be used to explain the origin of such variation. The majority of the existing population would have the favourable traits that allow them to survive in the environmental conditions (temperature, food supply, predators, etc) that they are exposed to. Since this Weekâs inquiry question is essentially exploring how humanâs use of biotechnology affects biodiversity on Earth, we should explore the definition of both âbiotechnologyâ and âbiodiversityâ. 1 mark = Relating to how an offspring’s favourable characteristics will allow it to survive and reproduce more successfully. We will explore more about alleles next week. The discovery and isolation of the DNA segment that specifies for the anti-freeze protein from the Northern Cod that resides in cold Canadian waters allows scientists to insert them growing tomatoes and strawberries. reindeer and human) and explore how their reproduction systems work. Many genetically identical flowers can be produced via cloning. In 2018, students undertaking the 2019 HSC will be starting the New HSC Science Syllabus in Chemistry, Physics and Biology. The insertion of therapeutic proteins to substitute the absence or low level of protein produced via natural, in-vivo protein synthesis due to a defective gene may be a substitute of gene therapy. Year 11 Biology (NEW) Year 11 Chemistry (NEW) Year 11 Physics (NEW) Year 12 Biology (NEW) Year 12 Chemistry (NEW) Year 12 Physics (NEW) Preliminary Business Studies; About us. Thus by adding antibiotics in the culture environment, it ensures all surviving (old and new) bacteria carry the desired gene. The following is an extract from a gardening website. Trusted & used by 367 NSW schools. Runners, bulbs, fragmentation are some examples of vegetative propagation. So, in the last part of this week’s material, we will turn to some real life application examples of humans applying scientific knowledge in genetics and reproduction to create AWESOME variations in plants and animals! HSC CoWorks has over 20 years of experience, supporting 1000s of Year 11 and 12 students to TRAIN, PREPARE and CONQUER their HSC. Each chromosome moves to each side of the cell. The bottom left image is diagram showcasing the steps of fertilisation and implantation: The idea of the diagram is just to allow you have a rough idea of where fertilisation and implantation occurs in the female’s body. This means that they are likely to meet at the fallopian tube, which is where fertilisation of the mature egg cell most commonly takes place in reality. This can lead to greater genetic variation in species population as the mating process is less selective than internal fertilisation. No fancy technology required. Student ID: 2019 Sample HSC Biology Paper #1 General Instructions • Reading Time - 5 minutes • Working time - 3 hours • Please write using black pen. Some example of this is the organism named Trichoplax. Thus, the genetic diversity (and biodiversity) is critical to the continuity of the species as we have already explored in detail in Module 5 Notes. In order, here are the Stages of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection: 1. The petri dish is then placed inside a incubator for cultivation where conditions are optimised for the enhance the probability of the zygote developing into an embryo and eventually blastocyst. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution states the following: 1. This process is selective as the gene that specifies for the favourable trait can be extracted. It is called Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection because there is a sudden change is due to environmental (nature) change(s). These gametes can combine to produce either a genetically identical offspring or genetically different offspring. • Internal fertilisation generally required more energy in search for a mating partner and perform the mating process which are unnecessary in external fertilisation. We will now examine reproduction for mammals specifically! For males, abnormalities in their sperm cells’ ability to fertilise mature eggs may be their cause in infertility. In 2019 you will have the opportunity to take … Currently, therapeutic proteins is a growing medical biotechnology area as HTS techniques are currently being used to automate the process to explore different therapeutic proteins to cure conditions such as asthma and muscular dystrophy. The environmental agent is refers to the environmental change. Genetic variation helps increase the population’s overall survival rate and thus support the continuity of species. Another ethics lies in the area of whether or not the increased global food availability and reduction nutritional deficiency used as justifications for biotechnology are actually being prioritised in supporting the people located in developing countries that require the support the most. Also, due to lower dosage required, the effect of pesticides runoffs into ambient waterways that are harmful to fish can be reduced (although this is an environmental implication rather than societal). This allows multiple copies of the recombinant DNA to be produced by the bacteria (in some cases yeast is used instead). Sexual spores are developed when opposite gender hyphae are combined together to develop a sporing-producing structure known as zygospore. You will be able to assess yourself easily whether your learning strategies are working or not. As these characteristics are derived from genetic material INHERITED over generations, they are also referred to as adaptations. Depending on the cell division process, there may be many names. Currently, countries like Africa have negative perceptions that the above the average due to poor relay of biotechnology in term of what it entails and its effects on cost, health and environment. The hypothalamus produces oxytocin and stores it in the pituitary gland, situated below the hypothalamus. Again through aquaculture, the discovery of the gene specifying for the production of calcitonin, a protein hormone that enhances calcium absorption into the body, is located in salmons. Since clones are genetically identical, mass cloning activities would make the entire cloned population susceptible to an entire wipeout. Not just structural characteristics (phenotype) but also physiological and behavioural characteristics! As there is no cell nucleus in bacteria, there will not be the splitting of cell nucleus. It results in the parent producing a plant that is genetically identical. If performed on land, the egg will dry out. This had the significance that genetic materials can be passed on from one generation to another which critical for the operation of modern biotechnology techniques requiring the interaction with speciesâ DNA. This led to questions relating to health and ethical problems of cloning. This allows scientists to verify whether the inserted genes into rabbits are operating as expected serving as a way for animals to produce the medicines (proteins) required to treat diseases in the future. Conquer HSC. However, adrenaline may also cause the opposite response which is decreasing cervix contractions due to fear. In the diagram below, we see that the zygote (fertilised egg) is formed in the fallopian tube where the sperm meets and fertilises the egg. Is it a smart thing to do? Leopard) for a rabbit population. Before we start analysing the social and ethical implications from the use of biotechnology, letâs explore what biotechnology entails in a broad sense. Biology is the science of living beings. A hungry rabbit hunter wandered into this juicy hunting environment O_O’. For bees, queen bees can produce egg cells (gametes) via meiosis. These egg cells are then placed in a petri dish to be fertilised with sperm cells. • Draw diagrams using a pencil. However, existing evidence is not complete to transform these theories into universal laws! Hence, artificial insemination is a form of sexual reproduction (involves gametes). Gene therapy involves inserting a gene into an organismâs DNA in replace a defective gene that is responsible for a disease. Module 1:Cells as the Basis of Life (part 2). Since the nutritional environment in which the bacteria is cultured contains antibiotics, any bacteria that does not absorb the plasmid containing antibiotic resistant gene will be killed. new predator introduced to kill the unicorns, sudden large drop in temperature, a virus, etc). This is because the resulting flower is only produced from only one parent plant rather than two in cross pollination. Since these two parent plants were selected and made to breed with each other, artificial pollination is therefore a form of selective breeding. By using biotechnology techniques, the need for deforestation and thus effects of soil erosion are reduced. The two daughter cells are clones of the parent somatic cell, that is, they both have identical genetic information as their parent. As you can already tell, we can go on forever on this topic so we will only discuss to cover a sufficient scope and depth for you to answer HSC Biology long responses. Model the process of polypeptide synthesis - Translation. [7 marks], Week 7 Curveball Question #4: Explain how does genetic techniques affect Earthâs biodiversity? Hyperstimulation is possible when the female takes the supplied fertility drugs such as those containing FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone) or GnRH hormones as mentioned in the hormonal cycle. Upon successful implantation, it will encourage the corpus luteum to secrete more oestrogen and progesterone. Developments over the years have resulted in machines with greatly increased speeds, storage or memory, and computing power. Fragmentation is when the original organism separates a small part of itself. The recommended time is 2 hours 25 minutes, but since this section runs on well-planned, well-thought-out and well-phrased extended answers, try to get 2.5 hours by winning back minutes in the MCQs. The difference between self-pollination and cross-pollination is that self-pollination does NOT involve a an external agent such as bees, water and wind as mentioned previously. The pollen grain essentially contain the male gametes of the plant. Physiological characteristics: Kangaroos licking their paws to encourage evaporation and cooling down. Comparatively, transgenic species with modified DNA are NOT produced via mutation but using techniques such as recombinant DNA technology as mentioned earlier. Furthermore, it is important to ensure transparent global communication pertaining to existing and new developments in the codes of ethical conduct. 1 mark = Describe how genetic variation may occur, 2 marks = Explain how genetic variation supports continuity of species. This means that these fungus can produce spores via meiosis and disperse them into the environment. Be clear about which subjects they wish to study for Years 11 and 12 3. Secondly, the mechanisms of meiosis allows parents’ DNA, coding for favourable characteristics, to be passed on to their offsprings. The mother of the offspring can be of an old age (over the age of 70) when her children is born. As females are born with a lifetime limited supply of oocytes, their age may be a cause of infertility. 100% Free Tutoring + Resources Click the link below to CLAIM YOUR FREEBIES! Adrenaline hormones are released during giving birth. Behavioural characteristics: Snakes hiding under rocks to avoid the sun. A selected female’s egg cell fusing with a selected male’s sperm cell. Those species with favourable characteristics for the new environment will survive and reproduce more successfully than those without. Year 12 Biology course structure and requirements That is, DNA nucleotides. Moreover, past biotechnology techniques also focused on using microbes to manufacture beer, wine, cheese, bread and many more. HSC 2004, Q27 Many of these therapeutic proteins that are approved in the USA by the FDA are also monoclonal antibodies used to treat various cancer diseases and arthritis. Year 11 Biology (NEW) Year 11 Chemistry (NEW) Year 11 Physics (NEW) Year 12 Biology (NEW) Year 12 Chemistry (NEW) Year 12 Physics (NEW) Preliminary Business Studies; About us. It is now clear that preserving biodiversity is important. 2 marks = Explain how these hormone are secreted and changes in their levels before and during pregnancy. Anyways, a last point that we wish to touch on is that modern biotechnology can be divided into several categories which includes: medical, industrial, food, agricultural, marine and environmental. • Upon fertilisation, the zygote is exposed to the environment rather than protected inside the mother’s body for internal fertilisation. There is a SUDDEN change in environmental conditions (e.g. If one clone is affected, the whole cloned population have equally as great of a danger for extinction. It is important to note that the parent cell won’t exist at the end because it is now part of the two daughter cells. Fertilisation involved multiple stages that MUST be fulfilled for successful fertilisation and zygote formation and thus producing a new offspring. For HSC purposes, an organism CANNOT adapt to its environment during its lifetime. An example of a behavioural adaptation is how snakes seek shade (e.g. bacteria and virus) as the gene specifies for Bt toxins proteins. EasyHSC is a free online resource for students studying the NSW HSC. under rocks) during a hot summer day to prevent overheating so enzymes do not denature. The enzymes in living organisms are sensitive to temperature and thus extreme temperatures would hinder the operations of metabolic processes and can result in death. While most undergraduate biology programs require a two-semester introductory biology sequence at the 100-level, all Hampden-Sydney biology majors will complete a single-semester, 100-level Principles of Biology lecture and laboratory course that introduces students to basic concepts.